>>In den Serien kommt es mir aber immer ein bisschen wie so ein Maenner/Jungsding vor
I think that's exactly right, and that's also exactly why Suquita01 and others might (very rightly) find it disrespectful in a work environment where colleagues are supposed to be treated as adults and as peers.
Suquita01, if you don't like it, I think you should speak up. If the vice principal is a jerk, go to the principal. And if no one in authority will back you up, simply practice nonviolent resistance on your own part, answering every time with an offended-sounding 'I beg your pardon?!' If they seem (or pretend to be) surprised, you can say, 'It doesn't matter to me whether you call me Suquita or Ms. Müller, but I really find it disrespectful when you just call me Müller, and I wish you would stop doing that.'
The atmosphere of Dr. House is like a stress situation and a young-male-bonding situation, like young men in the army on a mission, or young men on a football team or in a fraternity or something. (re #5: Or indeed, young men, or boys, at school.) But using only people's last name is also distancing. If they really knew each other well or cared about each other, they would use first names. If they really respected each other and did not know each other well, they would use last names and titles. But then that would no longer be a system that privileges the values of spoiled 20-something young Anglo males.