Marianne, in the original sentence, for clarity's sake, one can delete not only the US's corruption capital but take as well.
. . . graft, in which Chicago . . . can match anywhere in its hemisphere.
which, as you correctly note, can be rearranged as
In graft, Chicago can match anywhere in its hemisphere.
Is that what you meant to say? If so, it would seem we agree that anywhere (an adverb) is grammatically wrong (you can't match an adverb, only a thing), so anywhere must be replaced with a noun, including any place, anything, any city, or even Lima.
(If you don't like anything, I have no objection, even though I do not see it as inappropriate here.)
But one can also simply omit the initial In and say
Chicago can match graft anywhere in its hemisphere.
Chicago can match graft in Lima.
Although if it were my sentence, I would prefer
Chicago can match the graft of any city in its hemisphere.