Re #14: (—> got to do with racism)
'Uppity' was used for black people who tried to behave 'above their station,' that is, not lowering their gaze or stepping aside in deference to white people, or speaking out, protesting, daring to think they were equal to whites.
'Thug' means someone who is stupid and violent by nature. It's sometimes used in political rhetoric to refer to groups of people such as protesters or rioters, residents of high-crime / low-income neighborhoods, or convicts or ex-offenders, to make them sound more brutish and less human, to deny them agency.
'Tough on crime' is a phrase that conservative candidates have used in campaigning, promising to put more offenders in jail and keep them there longer. In practice, the 'tough on crime' movement enacted a set of policies such as 'three strikes and you're out' laws that have resulted in America having one of the highest incarceration rates (and costs) among developed nations, and a disproportionate percentage of black (and Hispanic) inmates, some of whom received decades-long sentences for offenses as minor as theft or possession of a small amount of a drug. Ex-offenders have also been deprived of the right to vote in many states, and attention has recently been drawn to needless killings of black men by police.
'Islamic terrorist' makes it sound as if all Muslims are terrorists, as if terrorism is Islamic or Islam causes people to become terrorists. It would be more accurate to say 'Islamist terrorist' for those who use violence to impose Muslim fundamentalist views on others, but even that is misleading for those who believe, as many Muslims do, that Wahhabism / Salafism is a cruel and distorted version of Islam.