That would be a cot.
>>(häufig als Klappbett an der Wand)
That could be a cot, or specifically, a fold-out cot or bed.
>>oder ähnlich wie die Liege im Sprechzimmer des Arztes.
That would be an exam table, in AE in my experience. But in the US at least, it's not usually long enough to support a tall person competely from head to foot, even with the extension at the feet pulled out. So I doubt that it would be adequate as part of the emergency first-aid furnishings in a company or a factory.
You might need to actually read some similar regulations in the country for which the translation is intended. I could imagine that in the US, for instance, a medical stretcher, technically called a gurney, might serve the same purpose, if it's the wheeled, height-adjustable kind used in hospitals and ambulances.
But just the word 'stretcher' would not be enough, because that could mean just a rudimentary lightweight version for carrying by hand, like canvas on poles, or like the plastic backboard they sometimes used to carry a player off the soccer field.