Constituted can, and often does, mean "give due or lawful form", but I do see your point, kind of.
You hear "democratically constituted" and "politically constituted" in English fairly often. Including with reference to Europe. Other than in translations of Habermas' texts, one doesn't hear it without an adverb very often. Though some EU sites use it.
I would have thought that "verfasst" usually means having a constitution, meaning a formal (usually written) instrument(s) embodying its rules and principles.
For a business to take on a legal form, it has to have statutes, doesn't it?
But from the posts above, it sounds like a registered GmBH with a Satzung is not part of what is meant by "verfasste Wirtschaft" - it sounds like that refers to a higher level of "Verfasstheit".
Perhaps business associations anchored in legislation (is that what you meant by statutes? or did you mean Satzung?). If that is so (big IF), then "legislatively constituted" might work.
I don't quite see how verfasste Wissenschaft fits in with all this (I take it it is not like "verfasste Wissenschaft" with a special meaning -assuming I've understood that right - of scientific/research institutions anchored in legislation?). It sounds epistemologically meant though, and even a whiff of epistemology makes my brain shut down.
And I see you were asking about the instituted involved in the Verfassung von Wirtschaft? That sounds like a slightly different meaning of the term. Could it mean lending form and structure to? Probably not, huh?
"codification of science/research" Hm. That sounds plausible to me. I would understand it as systematized science/research.
Unfortunately I'll be away from my desk for a couple of days. But I will come back, full of curiousity!
Edit: Just had a horrible thought. Might it be that science does have an unwritten constitution, made up of a set of continually developing norms and principles and institutions, and that those same institutions are among the actors responsible for that development?