I'm not sure we've reached a real conclusion, except that there's no single term and that 'jurist' is not a good choice in English.
To my ears, 'legal expert' sounds more senior, more expert, than a recent law school graduate, like someone who is really an expert in a particular area of the law, in fact, possibly even board specialized. The same would be true of 'specialist.'
If it were an older person in a research-like job in a corporate legal department for the long term, as a permanent employee, I think we might just call them a lawyer, whether or not they register with the bar to practice, but that's just a guess. And wouldn't most companies require them to become a member of the bar anyway?
'Lecturer/instructor in law,' or better, 'law school instructor,' would work in AE if they really were teaching, but not in other contexts, obviously.
#13 sounds good to me; it's presumably from the degree itself, Juris Doctor (? IIRC). But that might be a little too casual for something like a résumé or job description, and it might be inaccurate for a European graduate whose degree is actually more like a five-year undergraduate law degree. Which is another whole can of worms on which there's a lot in the archive ...