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    New entry for LEO

    bougainvillaea (genus Bougainvillea) - die Bougainvillea

    New entry

    bougainvillaea (genus Bougainvillea) bot. - die Bougainvillea

    Examples/ definitions with source references
    bou·gain·vil·le·a also bou·gain·vil·lae·a (bgn-vl-, -vly, -v, b-)
    n.
    Any of several South American woody shrubs or vines of the genus Bougainvillea having groups of three petallike, showy, variously colored bracts attached to the flowers.

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    [New Latin Bougainvillea, genus name, after Louis Antoine de Bougainville.]

    The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition copyright ©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Updated in 2009. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

    Comment
    variant of bougainvillea
    Authorwmw (386353) 11 Sep 12, 18:50
    Context/ examples
    "bougainvillaea" --- About 135,000 results
    https://www.google.com/search?q=%22bougainvil...

    "bougainvillea" --- About 5,410,000 results
    https://www.google.com/search?q=%22bougainvil...
    Comment
    Nicht unterstützt. Das ist doch lediglich ein Schreibfehler. Die Gattung ist nach Antoine de Bougainville benannt, wo soll denn da ein a zwischen ll und e herkommen?
    #1AuthorWachtelkönig (396690) 11 Sep 12, 19:09
    Context/ examples
    Variants of BOUGAINVILLEA
    bou·gain·vil·lea also bou·gain·vil·laea


    http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/bou...
    Comment
    variant: ... also ...
    #2Authorwmw (386353) 11 Sep 12, 19:56
    Comment
    Seems to be a simple misspelling rather than a valid variant.
    #3AuthorWachtelkönig (396690) 11 Sep 12, 20:08
    Context/ examples
    bougainvillea or bougainvillaea (ˌbuːɡənˈvɪlɪə )
    Definitions
    noun
    any tropical woody nyctaginaceous widely cultivated climbing plant of the genus Bougainvillea, having inconspicuous flowers surrounded by showy red or purple bracts

    http://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/e...
    Comment
    -
    #4Authorwmw (386353) 11 Sep 12, 21:38
    Comment
    In allen acht "Usage examples" der Quelle in Nr. 4 steht "bougainvillea".
    #5AuthorWachtelkönig (396690) 11 Sep 12, 22:11
    Context/ examples
    bougainvillea (bou¦gain|vil¦lea) Pronunciation: /ˌbuːg(ə)nˈvɪlɪə/
    (also bougainvillaea)

    Definition of bougainvillea
    noun
    an ornamental shrubby climbing plant that is widely cultivated in the tropics. The insignificant flowers are surrounded by large, brightly coloured papery bracts which persist on the plant for a long time.

    •Genus Bougainvillea, family Nyctaginaceae

    http://oxforddictionaries.com/definition/engl...
    Comment
    (also bougainvillaea)
    #6Authorwmw (386353) 12 Sep 12, 11:03
    Comment
    Die aea-Schreibung dieses durchaus komplizierten Namens war halt so verbreitet, daß ein Lexikograph, der keine Ahnung hatte, daß von wissenschaftlichen Gattungsnamen abgeleitete englische Trivialnamen mit denselben identisch sind, sie in ein Wörterbuch eingetragen hat. Und ein paar andere haben davon abgeschrieben. Trotzdem ist es ein simpler orthographischer Fehler.
    #7AuthorWachtelkönig (396690) 12 Sep 12, 13:56
    Comment
    Wartet ab bis Agalinis bei den Wunderblumengewächsen auftaucht und hier durchforstet.
    #8AuthorHarri Beau (812872) 12 Sep 12, 14:17
    Comment
    Harri Beau,
    wmw & Wachtelkönig have said everything that needs to be said on the subject. There is nothing meaningful that I could add to the discussion.
    #9AuthorAgalinis (714472) 12 Sep 12, 17:13
    Comment
    Entweder ist es nur ein Schreibfehler oder es taucht in verschiedenen botanischen Werken in nennenswerter Zahl auf. Denn dann könnte man es eintragen. Anderenfalls besser nicht.
    #10AuthorHarri Beau (812872) 12 Sep 12, 17:16
    Context/ examples
    "Bougainvillea" is a common misspelling or typo for: bougainvillaea.

    http://www.websters-online-dictionary.org/def...
    Comment
    ?
    #11Authorwmw (386353) 12 Sep 12, 17:22
    Context/ examples
    "bougainvilleas" --- About 366,000 results
    https://www.google.com/search?q=%22bougainvil...

    "bougainvillaeas" --- About 8,560 results
    https://www.google.com/search?q=%22bougainvil...
    Comment
    Now that's preposterous: The correct spelling is declared a "common misspelling" of a misspelling that is about two orders of magnitude less common (see above: Google results for plural to exclude identical scientific name).
    #12AuthorWachtelkönig (396690) 12 Sep 12, 18:40
    Comment
    #13AuthorTeddy-Toe (871989) 12 Sep 12, 19:43
    Context/ examples
    Genus: Bougainvillea Comm. ex Juss.
    [...]
    Comment: conserved (nom. cons.) with this spelling (Vienna ICBN Art. 14.11 & App. III) against the original spelling "Buginvillaea".
    http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/gen...

    Bougainvillea Comm. ex Juss., Gen. Pl.: 91. 4 Aug 1789 (‘Buginvillaea’) (orth. cons.) [Nyctagin.].
    Typus: B. spectabilis Willd. (Sp. Pl. 2: 348. 1799) (typ. cons.).
    http://ibot.sav.sk/icbn/main.htm

    De fructibus et seminibus plantarum: Supplementum carpologiae - p. 206
    http://books.google.com.ar/books?id=iHxIAAAAY...
    Comment
    Anscheinend wurde der Gattungsname ursprünglich "Buginvillaea" geschrieben, was dann als ungültig erklärt wurde (International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, Appendix III).
    #14AuthorWachtelkönig (396690) 12 Sep 12, 19:53
    Comment
    OK, I think I need to fill in a few gaps here.

    This plant was named in honor of Louis Antoine, Comte de Bougainville (1729-1811), French admiral and explorer. From 1766 to 1769, Bougainville commanded the first French expedition to circumnavigate the globe. On board was the expedition’s botanist, Dr. Philibert Commerçon (also sometimes spelled Commerson) (1727-1773).

    When the expedition paused in Rio de Janeiro, the first specimens of this plant were collected by Commerçon or his assistant somewhere in or in the vicinity of that city.

    Commerçon quit the expedition on the island of Mauritius in order to spend more time exploring there as well as the island of Madagascar. His collections from the trip as well as his field notes were sent along with the expedition and delivered to the Jardin des Plantes in Paris to await Commerçon’s return and publication. Commerçon died on Mauritius four years later, with his collections from the trip and his notes still unpublished.

    Over time, various people at the Jardin used Commerçon’s collections and notes to publish the names of new plants. In 1789, Antoine Laurent de Jussieu (1748-1836), in a work titled Genera Plantarum, published a description of a new genus based “ex sicco Commers. specimine Brasiliano,” on a Brazilian specimen from the collection of Commerçon. Jussieu named this new genus “Buginvillaea Commers.”, “Nomen à D. de Bougainville itineris Commersoniani duce” named for the commander of the expedition on which Commerçon traveled.

    Obviously, Jussieu badly mangled the name. Whether this was due to Jussieu, his printer, his printer’s typesetter, or Commerçon’s notes is unknown, but the intention of honoring Bougainville is known, “Nomen à D. de Bougainville …”

    In 1841, Édouard Spach, in volume 10 of his work titled Histoire Naturelle des Végétaux: Phanérogames, “corrected’ the generic name to “Bougainvillea Commers.

    In the 1950s, the International Botanical Congress, the body responsible for deciding on and publishing the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (it has recently been renamed the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants), adopted procedures for conserving names or spellings of names (“orthographies”) over other names or spellings that otherwise would have priority under the Code. At some point, the Congress (I don’t know which one in which year) adopted a proposal to conserve the spelling and type species:
    Bougainvillea Comm. ex Juss., Gen. Pl.: 91. 4 Aug 1789 (‘Buginvillaea’) (orth. cons.) [Nyctagin.]
    Typus: B. spectabilis Willd. (Sp. Pl. 2: 348. 1799) (typ. cons.)

    The International Code of Nomenclature only governs professional botanists in their professional publications. It does not govern anyone else.

    The officially correct scientific name of this plant is Bougainvillea. Nevertheless, if some English speakers wish to assert that the English common name of Bougainvillea is or ought to be “bougainvillaea,” I can’t stop them. But I don’t like it.

    For the sake of an entry in LEO, I would ask, however, where all the dictionaries cited here came by that misspelling. I don’t know the answer to that. Botanically, the first botanist to spell the name as Bougainvillaea was Jacques Denys Choisy in Alphonse de Candolle’s 1849 work titled Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis. Choisy cites at least five other spelling variants -- Bugenvillea, Buguinvillaea, Buginvillia, Bugainvillaea, & Buginvillea.

    I would point out that the websters-online-dictionary cited in #11 is the 1913 edition of Webster’s Revised Unabridged Dictionary. My personal experience with botanical names in that edition is: it is badly, badly out-of-date. I would also say that applying Latin rules of pronunciation and stress to “bougainvillaea,” the stress would have to be on the next-to-last syllable “ae” because the vowel of that syllable is either long or a diphthong.

    Here are citations to:
    Bougainville:
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_Antoine_de...
    http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_Antoine_de...
    Commerçon:
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philibert_Commerson
    http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philibert_Commerson
    Jussieu’s original publication in 1789:
    http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/5437323
    Spach’s corrected spelling in 1841:
    http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/10096...
    Choisy’s misspelling in 1849:
    http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/15943...
    #15AuthorAgalinis (714472) 12 Sep 12, 23:33
    Comment
    I understand now what was bugging me subconsciously about the title of this thread, and now that you all mention it, I would also be inclined to vote against the -aea spelling.

    However, now I'm curious -- I wonder if there's something about Latin grammar, or about the pronunciation, or both, that would explain why anyone ever thought of it in the first place.

    Hmm ... Do you think someone maybe Latinized his name to -villa ... and the genitive of that was -villae ... and then the extra -a ending was ... because plants have to be feminine? Or that maybe -aea is considered to be a standard Latin ending denoting origin as a unit, analogous to -aia or something in Greek?

    Somehow none of that sounds very plausible, but I don't actually know the finer points of Latin or Greek, so who knows. It just seems unlikely that the other spelling just came out of nowhere; I feel like someone must have thought they had a reason for it.

    Though I agree that if you spelled it that way, you would need to pronounce the -ae- as long A, like, um, Princess Leia, which would be a jolt ...
    #16Authorhm -- us (236141) 12 Sep 12, 23:59
    Comment
    Thanks, Agalinis.
    Interesting historical mini-excursus. The zoological Code would call the corrected spelling Bougainvillea a justified emendation.

    hm -- us,
    Genus names of plants don't need to be feminine, look at Taraxacum (dandelion) or Quercus (oak).
    #17AuthorWachtelkönig (396690) 13 Sep 12, 00:47
    Comment
    Scheint eine ähnliche Verwirrung zu sein wie bei Dictionary: gingko , da gibt es drei Varianten. Auch entstanden, weil die erste Übertragung aus dem Japanischen falsch war aber sich bis heute erhalten hat.

    #18AuthorHarri Beau (812872) 13 Sep 12, 08:47
     
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