Thanks for all the responses!
Yes, I'm afraid "calibrated" was perhaps a misguided attempt at finding a fancy-pants word for "adjusted."
But "well adjusted" has connotations of its own, so I wanted to avoiding using that phrase.
The second example in #1 threw me for a loop, where it's the condition or disease that's "gut eingestellt"!
"Regulated" (#2) is probably good, and so is "adjusted" as in #4 and #5.
For a translation that sticks really close to the German, more discussion might be needed. Now I'm thinking a freer translation might be ok in my case, such as:
"For many patients, the right medication in the right dosage is the only thing that makes further assistance and intervention possible."
Again: many thanks for your help!