Let's start with past simple vs present perfect. The basic rule of thumb is that you use:
- the past simple for an action that took place in the past and finished in the past, and
- the present perfect for an action that started in the past but continues until the present time.
- past simple: I lived in France in 2003 (but I live in England now)
- present perfect: I have been living in France since 2003 (and I'm still there).
Now you need to apply this rule of thumb to several of your sentences here. Only one tense is correct:
The first such change took/ was taking place when people started using tools.
The old civilizations developed/have developed some technologies that have not been improved/ were not improved for 2000 years.
Roman roads were only improved/ have only been improved in the 19th century.
But why have we changed/ did we change the face of the earth more in the past two centuries than our forefathers managed to do in thousands of years?
James Watt taught man to use the power that has been locked/ was in coal for millions of years.
And today we learnt/ have learnt to build machines that are thousand times more powerful than Watt‘s steam engine.
There are mistakes elsewhere in your text in #0, too, but these are just the past simple/present perfect ones to get you started.