All of the following refers to BE and to the legal Referendar, rather than the teacher Referendar
I have commented on the translation of Referendar-Junior Barrister before (which is quite simply an incorrect translation) related discussion
, but I also feel that the other translations given for Referendar are misleading:
articled clerk is the only translation that is marked 'jur.', while an articled clerk today is generally someone training to become a chartered accountant (see here: http://www.utkalsambad.com/career1.asp?field=...
or here: http://www.accountingweb.co.uk/cgi-bin/item.c...
). Admittedly solicitors used to have to do a period of "articles" before being fully qualified, but this is now known as a "training contract".
Therefore, "articled clerk" should be marked "arch." or "obs.", or marked for a country where that term is still used.
An intern on the other hand tends to be someone who does an internship, generally no more than glorified work experience, rather than a Referendariat, leading to a qualification. For examples see here: http://www.internweb.com/
, here: http://www.internjobs.com/
, or here: http://www.internabroad.com/
Trainee, in my opinion, is the only correct translation given for a legal Referendar, although I think "trainee solicitor" would be more precise. For examples, one only needs to type trainee and solicitor into Google to get some 218,000 hits- http://www.google.co.uk/search?client=firefox...
"Trainee Solicitor" could then be marked "jur."
As far as barristers are concerned, it is a "Pupil Barrister" who is still in training and therefore the equivalent of a Referendar. The Bar Council sets out the concept of pupillage here: http://www.legaleducation.org.uk/Pupillage/
, explaining that it is the final stage to qualification. See also here: http://www.lawreports.co.uk/qbsep1.htm
for the court decision that a pupillage was similar to an apprenticeship.
A "junior barrister" on the other hand, is a fully qualified lawyer, with full rights of audience at all courts in England and Wales. Here is an excerpt from a standing comittee:
"In criminal work, more junior junior barristers do the less serious work. Senior counsel will be remunerated at a higher level when undertaking the more serious criminal cases within the scheme. In family work, senior juniors almost inevitably have a succession of substantial cases that require considerable preparation. Under this scheme, they will be paid at the same rate as the most junior junior barrister undertaking a straightforward case.". The full text can be found here: http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm20...
The term "junior" barrister distinguishes a 'normal' barrister from a silk, or QC (Queen's Counsel), which are the most senior barristers in the council and listed in Leo: Dictionary: QC