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    New entry for LEO

    Crystal Night ... - die Reichskristallnacht ...

    New entry

    Crystal Night ... hist. - die Reichskristallnacht ...

    Related new entry

    Kristallnacht - euphemistic

    hist. -

    die Reichskristallnacht auch: Kristallnacht - euphemistische Bezeichnung

    Examples/ definitions with source references
    or Crystal Night or Night of Broken Glass
    Night of violence against Jews, carried out by members of the German Nazi Party on Nov. 9–10, 1938, so called because of the broken glass left in its aftermath.
    Kris·tall·nacht [ krístəl nkht ]
    Nazi attack against Jews: the night of November 9, 1938, during which Nazis and Nazi sympathizers in Germany and Austria engaged in attacks on Jews and their property
    [Mid-20th century. < German, "night of crystal"; because windows were broken]
    On the night of 9-10 November 1938, Nazi Propaganda Minister Dr Josef Goebbels organised the violent outburst known as Kristallnacht ('Crystal Night', the night of broken glass).
    Night of 9–10 November 1938 when the Nazi Sturmabteilung (SA) militia in Germany and Austria mounted a concerted attack on Jews, their synagogues, homes, and shops. (...) More than 200,000 Jewish men were arrested and sent to concentration camps, and 91 Jews were killed during the Kristallnacht.
    It is clear that the term Crystal Night serves to foster a vicious minimalizing of its memory, a discounting of grave reality: such cynical appellations function to reinterpret manslaughter and murder, arson, robbery, plunder, and massive property damage, transforming these into a glistening event marked by sparkle and gleam.
    Kristallnacht or Crystal Night is the name given to the night of November 9-10, 1938; it was the night when German Nazis attacked Jewish people and their properties.
    Crystal Night (Kristallnacht)
    (...) In any case, Kristallnacht was a turning point. It was the Nazis' first experience of large-scale anti-Jewish violence, and opened the way to the complete eradication of the Jews' position in Germany.
    The 64th anniversary of Kristallnacht, also known as "Crystal Night," was commemorated Thursday with a lecture regarding the possible connections between anti-Zionism and anti-Semitism.
    Even shortly after the Crystal Night, many leading Party officials suspected that the entire affair had been centrally cordinated. Significantly, even Hermann Graml, the only West German historian who has written in detail about the Crystal Night, carefully distinguished
    Crystal Night took place on 9th-10th November, 1938. Presented as a spontaneous reaction of the German people to the news that the German diplomat, Ernst vom Rath, had been murdered by Herschel Grynszpan, a young Jewish refugee in Paris, the whole event was in fact organized by the NSDAP. During Crystal Night over 7,500 Jewish shops were destroyed and 400 synagogues were burnt down. (...) After Crystal Night the numbers of Jews wishing to leave Germany increased dramatically
    Kristallnacht, also known as Reichskristallnacht, Pogromnacht, Crystal Night and the Night of the Broken Glass, was a pogrom[1] against Jews throughout Germany and parts of Austria on November 9–November 10, 1938.
    PRONUNCIATION: krstl-näkt -täl-nät
    NOUN:The night of November 9, 1938, on which the Nazis coordinated an attack on Jewish people and their property in Germany and German-controlled lands.
    ETYMOLOGY:German, night of (broken) glass : Kristall, crystal (from Middle High German, from Old High German cristalla, from Latin crystallus, crystallum; see crystal) + Nacht, night (from Middle High German naht, from Old High German; see nekw-t- in Appendix I).
    Kris·tall·nacht /krisˈtɑlˌnɑxt/ [krees-tahl-nahkht]
    a Nazi pogrom throughout Germany and Austria on the night of November 9–10, 1938, during which Jews were killed and their property destroyed.
    [Origin: < G Kristall crystal + Nacht night]
    Kristallnacht n.
    "night of (broken) glass": the night of Nov. 9, 1938, on which the Nazis coordinated an attack on Jews and their property in Germany and German-controlled lands, referring to the broken glass resulting from the destruction [< German Kristall "crystal" < Middle High German cristalla < Old High German cristalle < Middle Latin (pl.) crystalla < Latin crystallus < Greek krýstallos "ice, mountain crystal" < krýos "icy coldness, frost" + Nacht "night" < Middle High German naht < Old High German naht "night"].
    * "I mean to say, when the Storm Troopers burned down forty-two of Vienna's forty-three synagogues during Kristallnacht, Waldheim did wait a whole week before joining the unit." Bill Bryson, Neither Here Nor There: Travels in Europe, 1991, p. 264.
    * "Three years later came the Kristallnacht, on 9 November 1938, when the Nazis went on a rampage against Jewish property and desecrated synagogues in Austria and Germany." Hella Pick, Simon Wiesenthal: A Life in Search of Justice, 1996.
    3 +9Kristallnacht...
    5 +1night of the broken glass...
    4Crystal Night...
    LEO hat als Übersetzung der dt. "Reichskristallnacht" bisher nur "Night of Broken Glass" - Dictionary: Reichskristallnacht
    Mindestens so gebräuchlich und noch näher an der dt. Bezeichnung ist im Englischen "Crystal Night" bzw. noch verbreiteter der dt. Begriff "Kristallnacht" selbst. Wie bei dem bisherigen Eintrag sollte auch hier auf beiden Sprachseiten der euphemistische Charakter der Begriffe vermerkt werden (in der Art wie in related discussion: Night of Broken Glass ... - Reichskristallnac... vorgeschlagen):

    Kristallnacht - euphemistic [hist.] ---die Reichskristallnacht auch: Kristallnacht - euphemistische Bezeichnung

    Crystal Night - euphemistic [hist.] ---die Reichskristallnacht auch: Kristallnacht - euphemistische Bezeichnung
    Authorpaleo (231992) 05 Jan 08, 10:29
    Context/ examples
    web hits from sites written in English
    (via Google Advanced Search):

    Kristallnacht + 1938 - 119,000 (.uk 723)
    "Night of Broken Glass" + 1938 - 15,600 (.uk 533)
    "Crystal Night" + 1938 - 12,900 (.uk 183)
    Reichskristallnacht + 1938 - 6,100 (.uk 156)

    Okay. Again, I can and do support Kristallnacht in English. I can't really support Crystal Night, but if others can, I'm not absolutely opposed to it.

    Belatedly, here's another list of web hits in English so that it's clear which terms are actually used the most. (I added the control term '1938' to exclude contexts like 'a crystal night sky.') Again, Kristallnacht wins by a long shot.

    As a reasonably well-read layperson, though certainly not a historian, I'm as completely unfamiliar with 'Crystal Night' as I am with Reichskristallnacht. That is, I don't think I've ever read it in an English text. Is it possible that it's more common in BE? The web hits don't suggest that, but maybe BE speakers could comment.

    I'm not sure it's even a very good translation, because we don't usually use 'crystal' for window glass in English, only for the glass over the face of a wristwatch (countable) or for expensive pieces of decorative cut glass (uncountable) such as bowls and goblets. (And of course for things like quartz.)

    I can understand why a completely literal translation would help English readers understand (and then use) the word Kristallnacht, but as a descriptive translation that at least can stand alone, Night of Broken Glass seems better to me. I would almost hesitate to add Crystal Night as an entry at all, because then people might be tempted to use it.

    Anyway, since no translation is very good, you can see why the consensus choice in English is normally just to use the German term.

    As for euphemism and official terminology, I still disagree so far and have commented in the other thread:

    related discussion: Night of Broken Glass ... - Reichskristallnac...
    #1Authorhm -- us (236141) 05 Jan 08, 21:31
    Context/ examples
    Treffer auf Google Book Search (in engl. Sprache, jew. mit Kontrollbegriff '1938'):

    975 on "kristallnacht" 1938

    634 on "crystal night" 1938

    620 on "night of broken glass" 1938

    227 on "night of the broken glass" 1938
    @hm-us: Wir stimmen überein, dass angesichts der verbreiteten Verwendung von "Kristallnacht" im Englischen, das Paar Kristallnacht - die Reichskristallnacht auch: Kristallnacht zusätzlich eingetragen werden sollte (zur Frage der Euphemismuswarnung related discussion: Night of Broken Glass ... - Reichskristallnac... ).

    Allerdings führen die von Dir zitierten Google-Zählereien in die Irre, da die Zahlen nicht unterscheiden, ob "Kristallnacht" einmalig als deutscher Originalbegriff zitiert wird -- was bei den allermeisten Ausführungen zu den Novemberpogromen 1938 unabhängig von der ansonsten verwendeten Bezeichnung der Fall ist -- oder tatsächlich als "englischer" Begriff im Text verwendet wird. Ein realistischeres Bild vermittelt die Google Book Search (s.o.) Demnach kommen in englischsprachigen Büchern auf zehn Treffer für "Kristallnacht" je sechseinhalb für "Crystal Night" und "Night of Broken Glass" sowie weitere zweieinhalb für "Night of the Broken Glass" (auch diese Formulierung ist gebräuchlich). Das entspricht meinem Eindruck von der Häufigkeit der entsprechenden Begriffe, den ich bereits in #0 skizziert hatte. Dein Bauchgefühl hinsichtlich der "consensus choice in English" geht hier offensichtlich fehl.

    Es überrascht mich, dass Dir "Crystal Night" in englischen Texten nie begegnet ist. Der Begriff ist vor allem in populäreren Texten zum Thema, aber auch in Fachpublikationen, absolut gängig (Details über obigen Google-Link) und daher in Nachschlagewerken wie der Encyclopædia Britannica als gängiges Synonym für das deutsche Novemberpogrom von 1938 verzeichnet (siehe entspr. Zitat eingangs #0). Dass Du "Crystal Night" persönlich nichts abgewinnen kannst, ist demgegenüber irrelevant. Ehrlich gesagt finde ich alle hier diskutierten Bezeichnungen problematisch - aber auch das tut angesichts des (belegten) tatsächlichen Gebrauchs nichts zur Sache.

    Am Rande: Deine als Übersetzungsschelte gemünzte Kritik am Begriff "crystal" - we don't usually use 'crystal' for window glass in English, only for the glass over the face of a wristwatch (countable) or for expensive pieces of decorative cut glass (uncountable) such as bowls and goblets. (And of course for things like quartz.) - gilt in gleicher Weise für das dt. Wort "Kristall" (s. ) Dieses harmlose Assoziationsspektrum ist gerade einer der Gründe dafür, dass der Begriff (Reichs)Kristallnacht als euphemistisch gilt. Doch Weiteres dazu in related discussion: Night of Broken Glass ... - Reichskristallnac...
    #2Authorpaleo (231992) 06 Jan 08, 15:53
    I studied pre-war Germany for GCSE history (in the UK, circa 2000) and the words 'Night of Broken Glass' or Kristallnacht were used.
    #3AuthorWalnuss06 Jan 08, 17:29
    Context/ examples
    "Crystal Night" used as a direct translation of the German skews Google results

    I can see "Crystal Night" being used as a direct translation to show what the German means literally (a reason for it coming up so many times on Google)
    ...but also can't say I've heard it being used on its own as a name for that night, whereas I have heard "Night of Broken Glass" used in that way, as well as the German being used.

    To quote from the proz link above:

    Crystal Night
    "- disagree Ian M-H: This is occasionally encountered as a translation of "Kristallnacht", used after that term to explain it, but doesn't have any currency of its own among native speakers of English. 7 hrs
    - disagree writeaway: as Ian says,Crystal Night is just a translation,but it's not referred to as Crystal Night in English/both your previous revisionist ref + this one are aimed at a certain level of readership that supposedly needs over-simplified terminology.still wrong. "

    Examples specifically calling this a literal translation:

    November 9-10: Nazis carry out a devastating plan called Kristallnacht (literally, "Crystal Night," or the Night of Broken Glass)

    Literally "Crystal Night", after the broken glass which was strewn across the streets during the pogrom of November 9-10,1938. ...

    Kristallnacht, literally Crystal Night but usually called the Night of Broken Glass. ...

    Kristallnacht is the German word that literally means "Crystal Night,"

    Dictionaries often fail to mention Crystal Night at all

    My New Oxford D. of E has this under "Kristallnacht" (no mention of "Crystal Night") but has no entry under "Crystal" or "Night" (although it has "night of the long knives").

    Langenscheidt Muret-Sanders GWB has:
    Kristallnacht - kristallnacht, Night of the Broken Glass; auch Pogrom Night

    Collins has this as "Crystal night, night of 9th / 10th November 1938, during which the Nazis organized a pogrom throughout Germany, burning synagogues and breaking windows of Jewish shops" - no mention of it being called Kritallnacht in English, too, but the capitalisation "Crystal night" suggests it is not its "official" name in English.

    Cassell's Dictionary of Modern German History:
    Crystal Night - no entry
    Kristallnacht - 'crystal night' or 'night of broken glass', the pogrom organised ...
    (I also understand this as an explanation of what the German means; note that it is not capitalised, as a name normally is, as in the entry "Night of the Long Knives")

    Google books hits often translations

    Looking at the Google Books 634 hits for "crystal night" 1938, the first twenty seem to be translations from German.
    I'm not saying that "Crystal Night" is not used at all as an independent name, just that it may appear to be more common from the Google results above than it really is.

    Perhaps it is slightly more common in the US?? Despite hm's misgivings? On university sites, for example, we get:

    533 from for kristallnacht 1938
    14 from for "crystal night" 1938
    970 for kristallnacht 1938 site:edu
    229 for "crystal night" 1938 site:edu

    So if Leo is going to go its own way and add "Crystal Night" as an independent name, I'd put it last on the list, or maybe with an "also" or "informal" or something.

    I definitely agree with Kristallnacht on the English side, it's used the most often.
    #4AuthorCM2DD (236324) 06 Jan 08, 18:35
    Newspaper hits:

    The Guardian: 36 for Kristallnacht
    1 for "Crystal Night":
    The attacks - called Kristallnacht (crystal night), an ironic reference to the broken glass left on the streets,4...

    53 from for kristallnacht
    Your search - "crystal night" - did not match any documents.

    113 from for kristallnacht
    2 weird ones from for "crystal night"

    275 from for kristallnacht
    1 from for "crystal night"

    55 from for kristallnacht
    Your search - "crystal night" - did not match any documents.

    82 from for kristallnacht
    2 from for "crystal night"

    2 from for kristallnacht
    Your search - "crystal night" - did not match any documents.

    1 from for kristallnacht
    No relevant hits for "crystal night"

    I tried the last two newspapers to see if Crystal Night was used more in the "popular" press, but no sign of that.
    #5AuthorCM2DD (236324) 06 Jan 08, 18:52
    @CM2DD: Ich erwarte nicht, dass irgendwer meiner Versicherung Glauben schenkt, dass ich Crystal Night seit Jahren massenhaft in einschlägiger Forschung und Lehre begegne (US-Universität), dass aber die Encyclopedia-Britannica und anderen oben zitierten Belegstellen derart gering geschätzt werden, erstaunt mich doch. Wie viele akademische Belegstellen soll ich Euch denn liefern, liebe native Laien, um Euch vom real exiastierenden Gebrauch dieses Terminus zu überzeugen?
    #6Authorpaleo (231992) 06 Jan 08, 19:30
    Context/ examples
    Encyclopedia Britannica (2001 edition):
    (German: "Night of Crystal"), also called NIGHT OF BROKEN GLASS, night of violence against Jewish persons and property carried out by the German Nazis on Nov. 9-10, 1938--so called in irony from the litter of broken glass left in the aftermath.
    Is it possible English usage has changed in recent years? My slightly older Britannica only mentions "Night of Broken Glass", not "Crystal Night".
    #7AuthorNorbert Juffa (unplugged)06 Jan 08, 20:24
    @paleo - as I said above, I'm not saying that "Crystal Night" isn't used, just that it may not be as common as the Google results might suggest. All I can say is that despite being a layperson, I live in Germany and have been reading books about German history for the last 15 years, and "Crystal Night" is not something that sounds familiar to me (also despite spending what seemed like a century at school learning about the Nazi era!). As I said, I would understand it as a direct translation to explain what the German means, rather than an independently used English term.

    Of your examples in #0, the only reliable source which seems to say Crystal Night is a fixed term in English is EB. For those reasons, and not because I doubt you, I wanted to provide some examples showing that the Google results which suggest "Crystal Night" is common may be skewed by the number of sites using it as a translation, not as a fixed term. I didn't mean to question your knowledge, just to show that CN may be less common than the other translations.

    From the newspaper examples in #5, you can see that in the press, Crystal Night is far less common than Kristallnacht, with ratios of 50:1. Maybe there's a reason for that which needs to be reflected in Leo. Perhaps "Crystal Night" is used more by specialists than by laypeople? Or is used more by Jewish people? Or is old-fashioned/a new trend?

    Kristallnacht--literally, "Crystal Night"--is usually translated from German as the "Night of Broken Glass";

    Kristallnacht, literally translated, means "Crystal Night". ... Kristallnacht is more usually translated to English as "Night of the Broken Glass." ...

    Kristallnacht--literally, "Night of Crystal"--is usually referred to as the "Night of Broken Glass."

    Kristallnacht--literally, "Crystal Night"--is usually translated from German as the "Night of Broken Glass";

    The "Kristallnacht," also known as "Reichskristallnacht" (lit. "Crystal night" or " Imperial crystal night") usually translated into English as "The Night ...

    "Kristallnacht" is a German word that consists of two parts: "Kristall" translates to "crystal" and refers to the look of broken glass and "Nacht" means "night." The accepted English translation is the "Night of Broken Glass."
    #8AuthorCM2DD (236324) 07 Jan 08, 08:54
    Context/ examples

    1938 * March 12 --- German troops enter Austria.
    * September 29 --- Conclusion of the Munich Conference; Sudetenland ceded to Germany.
    * November 9 --- Crystal Night (pogrom against German Jews).
    1939 * March 15 --- German troops invade and occupy remainder of Czechoslovakia.

    American historian and writer Peter Gay — who as a young boy watched in horror as the Nazis rounded up Jews, ransacked Jewish homes and shops and burned down synagogues on that fateful November evening in 1938 known as Crystal Night — will deliver the 2007 Klutznick Lecture in Jewish Civilization April 17.

    NBC Evening News for Thursday, Nov 09, 1978
    Headline: West Germany / Crystal Night Anniversary
    Abstract: (Studio) Remembrances in West Germany of Crystal Night, night when Nazi anti-Semitism began its full violence, noted.
    REPORTER: David Brinkley
    (Berlin, West Germany) Film of Berlin, November 1938, shown. Details about Crystal Night, November 9, 1938, given. West Berlin's Jewish community center noted to stand on site of burned synagogue. Commemorations of Crystal Night in Berlin described.
    REPORTER: Fred Briggs

    Today - another anniversary of socalled Crystal Night - a euphemistic label for the beginning of the Holocaust. Thousands of German Jews were sent to concentration camps, thousands of shops and synagogues pillaged and German Jews made to pay for the damage done to them.
    "Crystal night" demarcates the day the systematic delegitimation and annihilation of Jews in Germany and eventually most of Europe ...

    July was, however, too late because hundreds of people had registered before him. He was forced to stay in Austria until the Crystal Night, November 1938.
    On Crystal Night the Nazis burnt many synagogues, destroyed stores and individual homes, and arrested thousands of Jewish men. ...
    The morning after Crystal Night, Egon returned home to find that his father and younger brother were safe. His father had hidden in the refrigerator of his delicatessen and his brother hid in a neighbor's attic. ...

    November 10, 1938 is when it all began for Stella. She was sent home early from school only to find out that her father was in hiding because Jewish males were being rounded up (67). Crystal Night was the turning point for the Goldschlags in realizing that there was no escaping Hitler, and they later came to terms with WWII as well

    ...he and his father went out on the Crystal Night and attacked a passerby whom they thought was Jewish...

    Like the definition, the origin of the term “Kristallnacht” is also under debate. At midnight on November 10, the Nazis announced the occurrence of an Aktion or Judenaktion, which gave Kristallnacht its first name. The actual term Kristallnacht, or Crystal Night in English, did not come into popular usage until 1946.[4] Although this term for the event is commonly used in our modern time, many have a problem with the title because they believe that Nazis invented the name to mock Jews on the night of the event. (...) Walter Pehle argues that if Kristallnacht was a popular coining, then it reflects anything but a sense of sympathy on the part of the population. He writes “the term ‘Crystal Night’ sparkles, glistens, and gleams, as if it were a festive occasion.”[7]
    [7] Walter Pehle, ed., November, 1938: From Kristallnacht to Genocide (New York: Berg, 1991), 117.

    The beginning of this horrible experience began on Crystal Night which was November 9, 1938. On that night, a Nazi-organized destruction of Jewish homes and businesses commenced with the breaking of thousands of windows, burning, and looting.

    University of California at San Diego
    HIEU 158
    Winter 2007
    Class meets Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays 11—11:50 in Center 105.
    Office hours: Mondays and Wednesdays 1:30—2:30
    Professor Deborah Hertz
    (...) January 22
    Domestic Support for the Nazi Regime and Crystal Night
    Read: Burleigh, Chapter Seven; Kaplan, Chapter Five

    University of Pittsburgh UNIVERSITY TIMES
    Volume 40, Number 8, December 6, 2007
    CALENDAR (...)
    Monday 10 (...)
    German/Jewish Studies Lecture
    “Remembering Crystal Night, Nov. 9, 1938,” Walter Jacob; 204 FFA, 4 pm (4-5909)

    Most thoughtful is Stephen Haynes' analysis of Dietrich Bonhoeffer's attitude towards Judaism. He argues that the Nazis' maltreatment of the Jews, particularly the Crystal Night pogrom, and the absence of any collective church protest, was one of the main influences for Bonhoeffer's decision to join the covert political resistance.

    AN61. Anker, Dorothy b. 1913
    Interview and memoir
    4 tapes, 360 min., 96 pp.
    Anker, retired owner of a Springfield photo studio, recalls her life in Germany prior to WWII, conditions for Jewish people in the 30's, memories of Crystal Night, and the effects of Nazi government policies on her family and their business.

    Mendelsohn, John, ed. The Holocaust: Selected Documents (New York: Garland Pub., 1982). 18 v.
    1. Legalizing the Holocaust : the early phase, 1933-1939 -- 2. Legalizing the Holocaust : the later phase, 1939-1943 -- 3. The Crystal Night Pogrom -- 4. Propaganda and aryanization, 1938-1944 -- ...

    God at Work
    Rev. Dr. David W. Miller (...)
    What happened on 9/11/38 that compelled Dietrich Bonhoeffer to link the events of that day with the events of the destruction of the Temple in Psalm 74? Germany’s “9/11” is known as Kristallnacht or “Crystal Night,” so named because of the looting and shattering of thousands of glass windows in Jewish storefronts, synagogues, and homes throughout Germany.

    The shattered panes of beveled glass that littered sidewalks, most of it coming from the shop windows of Jewish stores, gave the pogrom its name: Kristallnacht or Crystal Night. In the days that followed, 25 to 30,000 Jewish men (almost 10% of what remained of the German Jewish community) were sent to Germany's concentration camps.

    Thalmann, Rita and Emmanuel Feinermann. Crystal Night: 9-10 November 1938.
    New York: Holocaust Library, 1974.
    Recreates the night of November 9-10, 1938, when the Nazi-sanctioned riot was unleashed against the Jews.

    After Crystal Night in November 1938 Rabbi Jacob, like most German Jews, was arrested and imprisoned in the Dachau concentration camp. On his release the family fled to England and later settled in Springfield MO where he served as rabbi for both the traditional and the liberal congregations. (...) The Augsburg Temple, where Ernst Jacob officiated as rabbi, was one of the few synagogue buildings in Germany that survived the Nazi period and that is still in use today. It was not torched on Crystal Night because it was located across the street from the city power plant.

    * Over 100 Jews were killed and 20,000 arrested in the Night of Broken Glass or Crystal Night (Kristallnacht).
    * Jews were ordered to pay one billion Reichsmarks to clear up the damage.

    And then my mother...sent me out into the streets of Berlin on the night of Crystal Night, the pogrom ongoing then, to buy, believe it or not, pork chops, because after all the guests could not go without a proper dinner.

    Holocaust Bas-Reliefs .
    Crystal Night.

    Living witnesses of Crystal Night, "the night of breaking glass," recall the violence and destruction which destroyed hundreds of German and Austrian synagogues, and vandalized thousands of Jewish businesses.

    first stages of Jewish policy (1933-1937)= concentrate on definition, isolation, removal from public life, special taxes, etc., to pressure toward emigration
    In 1938, anti-Jewish policy turns to open violence—Crystal Night, ghettos, concentration and work camps [during the war, the Nazis would also construct mass death camps]

    AUTHOR Asher, Julie
    TITLE Crystal Night horror recalled
    IMPRINT Catholic Telegraph, Nov. 11, 1988

    A series of six guest lectures and visits by resident scholars will be held in conjunction with the anniversary of Crystal Night to commemorate the destruction of European Jewish life in the late 1930s and early 1940s and to commemorate Yom H'shoah (The Day of Remembrance).

    And I counter that those were precisely the words on the lips of the man who turned the crank on the Gattling Gun at Wounded Knee, and on the good Germans who marched into Poland or turned on their neighbors during the crystal night.

    The plan was proposed after a series of 1938 events spurred the victimization of helpless Jews: the annexation of Austria to the Reich in March, the fruitless Evian Conference on Jewish Refugees in July, Crystal Night in November, and the attempt on the life of Secretary of the Legation von Rath in Paris, which resulted in massive persecution of German Jews, unleashing furies raged without bounds and restraint all over Germany and Austria.

    The outcome of these trials led to the statement that guilt should be determined on the basis of whether or not the person had the opportunity to make a moral choice, not whether or not a superior had given an order. For many Nuremberg brought to light, for the first time, the "Night and Fog decree", "Crystal Night", "the final solution" and other horrific Nazi atrocities.

    On the night of November 9, 1938, Kristallnacht or Crystal Night began. This was a series of attacks on synagogues and stores. The pretext for the attacks had happened a couple of days earlier when a Polish Jew, Herschel Grynszpan, had assassinated the Third Secretary of the German Embassy in Paris, Ernst von Rath.

    Author: Thalmann, Rita, 1926-
    Uniform Title: Nuit de cristal. English
    Title: Crystal night, 9-10 November 1938 [by] Rita
    Thalmann and Emmanuel Feinermann. [Translated by Gilles
    Published: London, Thames and Hudson [1974]
    Description: 192 p. 23 cm.

    Title: Crystal Night / produced by the Centre for the
    Heritage of Jewish Heroism with the participation of the
    International Quiz on Jewish Heroism, the World Federation of Jewish Fighters, Partisans & Camps Inmates ; director, Yossi
    Goddard ; producer, Esther Soffer.
    Published: United States : Embassy of Israel, [1988?]

    Author: Jacobs, Steve.
    Uniform Title: Diary of an exile
    Title: Crystal night / Steve
    Published: Craighall : Ad. Donker, 1986.
    ISBN: 086852123X

    Finally, phase three (1935-1939) was characterized by rapid, bloodless diplomatic and military strokes to win applause at home while liquidating opposition elements in the military and churches.
    Crystal Night, 1938
    In 1938, a Polish Jew assassinated a German diplomat in Paris. In response,...

    63. A-68-1 An Interview with Mark Lane / B-68-3 The Crystal Night in Germany

    November 9th - The "Crystal Night", when Jewish houses, synagogues, and schools in Germany are burnt down and shops looted; attacks continue until the 14th.

    1938 March - Annexation of Austria (Anschluss)
    Sept - Munich Conferences followed by German invasion of Czechoslovakia
    Nov - Mass pogroms: "Crystal Night" (Kristallnacht) against Jews
    1939 March - German invasion of remaining portions of Czechoslovakia
    @CM2DD: Es ist - da hast Du Recht - nicht möglich über irgendeine Form der Google-Zählerei einen exakten Verteilungsschlüssel im Gebrauch der verschiedenen Begriffe zu ermitteln, da eben der (semantische) Kontext nicht erfasst werden kann. Solche Zahlen sind aber nur ein Anhaltspunkt und als solche unerheblich, sofern ein Begriff unzweifelhaft die kritische Masse des Gebrauchs erreicht hat. Das ist bei Crystal Night m.E. zweifellos der Fall und manifestiert sich im EB-Eintrag. Da Dich die Belege in #0 nicht überzeugt haben, ergänze ich eine Reihe weiterer Belegstellen, vorwiegend aus dem akademischen Kontext, die Crystal Night als 'independently used English term' zeigen.

    Was eine zusätzliche Kennzeichung des LEO-Eintrags angeht, sehe ich keine Möglichkeit, in LEO die Verwendungshäufigkeit bestimmter Übersetzungen zu signalisieren - außer über ein "selten", das m.E. falsch wäre; die Reihenfolge ist zwangsläufig alphabetisch.
    Ich denke auch, dass der Begriff nicht überall gleich häufig verwendet wird, vermag aber kein klares Muster zu erkennen, außer dass der Gebrauch im AE m.E. relativ häufiger ist als in BE - was aber wiederum nicht heißt, dass Crystal Night in BE nicht verwendet würde.
    #9Authorpaleo (231992) 07 Jan 08, 10:53
    Context/ examples

    Not until the pace of "Aryanizing" Jewish property accelerated in 1937 and actual violence broke out during "Crystal Night" in 1938 did it become unambiguously clear that the Jews would have to get out, and by then the hour was late.

    In 1935, the Nuremburg laws robbed Jews of German citizenship and closed the professions to them. Crystal Night in November, 1938, saw the windows of Jewish stores smashed.

    Following the campaign of cultural and economic displacement came another period of relative tranquility that lasted until the infamous "Crystal Night" pogrom in November 1938.

    D. Anti-Semitism
    1. Nuremberg Laws
    2. ‘Crystal Night'
    3. Wannsee Conference – ‘Final Solution'
    4. Ghettos
    5. Death Camps

    Even Hitler's book, Mein Kampf was greatly sanitized for its American publisher by the deletion of its most virulent antisemitic passages. When the late Senator Allan Cranston returned from Gennany after the Crystal Night from his reporter duties in Germany he was surprised to find this altered edition.

    But his loyalty to Hitler remained. Although disturbed by such brutalities as the Crystal Night pogrom, and the so-called euthanasia action, he never considered abandoning his previous stance or supporting any more active opposition.

    The Crystal Night. A synagogue was set on fire and the fire department was putting out the fire on the other buildings and letting the synagogue burn down.

    The “Crystal Night” was a Nazi-orchestrated mass reaction against Jews in Germany in 1938, so called because of the enormous number of store windows broken.

    The one-hour film will air over the Public Broadcasting Service
    on Nov. 9, the 50th anniversary of `crystal night,' when
    widespread Nazi attacks on synagogues and Jewish businesses and
    homes littered the streets with shattered glass.

    ...she manages again and again to dismantle some post identity of the stereotypes that exist about such events as the Reich Crystal Night and the Germans’ ready participation in it.

    This was the occasion for the Nazis to launch an intense verbal assault on the German Jewish community and to encourage mob violence against the Jews, promising that the police would not interfere with “the spontaneous reaction of the German people.” On November 9-10, “Crystal Night,” mobs throughout Germany looted Jewish homes and businesses, destroying 7000 Jewish-owned shops and many synagogues.

    1. “Crystal night,” a.k.a. “Night of Broken Glass.”
    2. Pogrom of Jews living in Germany & Austria on 11/09/1938.
    3. Broken glass stands for broken shop windows owned by Jews.

    The key event in this whole story was, of course, the "Crystal Night" ("Kristallnacht"), or "Night of Broken Glass" in 1938. Here the Goebbels diary must be treated with the utmost caution.

    Crystal Night. Night of a Nazi pogrom throughout much of Germany, 9/10 November 1938. (...); total damage costing 25 million marks, of which over 5 million was for broken glass. Thus Crystal Night.
    James Taylor and Warren Shaw, 1987, The Third Reich Almanac, (NY: World Almanac), pages 85-86.

    ...three days before Crystal night, when more glass was broken in five hours than had ever before in the history of the world been broken in five hours, a policeman took his terrier for a walk.

    After the “Crystal Night” a series of rallies took place in the country condemning Hitler’s anti-Semitism.

    On 9 November 1938 news came that vom Rath had died of his wounds, and immediately the signal was given for pogroms against the Jews on the same night (the eve of 10 November 1938), known as "Crystal Night." (...) that he took part in organizing the Crystal Night pogroms, on the eve of 10 November 1938, in Austria (behind which were the Gestapo and the SD) (...) Mr. Fleischmann described the speech made by the Accused to the Jews who crowded into the Palestine Office in Vienna on the day following Crystal Night: (...) At a meeting presided over by Goering immediately after the Crystal Night, Heydrich boasts of the activity of the Central Office for Emigration in Vienna

    The homogenization of language use in terms of regulating specific vocabularies and prohibiting specific modes of expression under the NS regime offers illustrative examples: the absurd racist categorization of people as ‘Jews,’ ‘half-Jewish,’ and ‘quarter-Jewish’ to prepare and justify the Holocaust; the use of cynical euphemisms like ‘Crystal Night’ for the pogrom of November, 1938; or defining ‘Aryanization’ as the expropriation of Jewish property organized by the state.

    Crystal Night” pogrom, 56
    The Cambridge Companion to American Judaism
    Series: Cambridge Companions to Religion
    Edited by Dana Evan Kaplan, University of Miami,2005

    As a reactionary “passion for the real” let’s recall here the attacks on the Jews in the Crystal Night. This rage was not a challenge for the given order, rather it served to hide a missing ability to intervene in a crisis situation (Žižek 2002: 23, 35).

    Crystal Night took place on 9th-10th November, 1938. Presented as a spontaneous reaction of the German people to the news that the German diplomat, Ernst vom Rath, had been murdered by Herschel Grynszpan, a young Jewish refugee in Paris, the whole event was in fact organized by the NSDAP.

    Press cuttings relating to Nazi abuses of human rights, particularly their persecution of the Jews, including coverage of the Crystal Night pogrom, 1938

    Clearing up after Crystal Night

    In 1938, a Jew shot a Nazi official dead in Paris and Hitler retaliated with the Night of Broken Glass (or Crystal Night). Nearly 10,000 Jewish shopkeepers had their shop windows smashed and the contents looted. Jewish homes and synagogues went up in flames.

    On "Crystal Night" one man saw ten to twenty Jews running down an alley...
    Marion Kaplan, Review of Victims and Neighbors: A Small Town in Nazi Germany Remembered by Frances Henry, New German Critique, No. 38, Special Issue on the German-Jewish Controversy (Spring - Summer, 1986), pp. 181-185

    that Hitler must prefer gains by treaty to gains by war. Within weeks, the 'Crystal Night' pogrom and then the occupation of Bohemia in March 1939 ended all Londonderry's hopes.

    Kershaw again offers a synthesis, one that appears satisfactory given the evidence. He notes that Hitler's role was vague in the 1930s initiatives, the Nuremberg Laws and "Crystal Night"

    In what is historically referred to as Crystal Night, 7,500 Jewish shops are destroyed and 400 synagogues are burnt. The attack is portrayed as a spontaneous reaction to the death of a German diplomat by a Jewish refugee in Paris. It is actually orchestrated by the Nazi party who also kill many Jews and send 20,000 to concentration camps.

    In November 1938 concerted anti-Semitic violence swept the country in the form of the 'Crystal Night' pogroms. Thereafter German Jews were stripped of their financial assets. (...) Even so, 120,000 Jews emigrated between 1933 and 1937. A further 118,000 left in the wake of 'Crystal Night'. By October 1941 only 164,000 Jews were left in Germany.
    Germans against Hitler. Who resisted the Third Reich and why did they do it? by Dr Martyn Housden. University of Bradford
    new perspective. Volume 3. Number 3. March 1998

    The boycott was the first state-sponsored measure against the Jews, the first step on the long and dreadful road that led to the Nuremberg Laws, the Crystal Night pogrom, and eventually the 'Final Solution'.

    Up until this time these camps had been mainly for political prisoners. The only people who were punished for the crimes committed on Crystal Night were members of the Sturm Abteilung (SA) who had raped Jewish women (they had broken the Nuremberg Laws on sexual intercourse between Aryans and Jews).

    'The Crystal Night’ or 'Night of the Broken Glass', was when the Nazis smashed and looted Jewish shops and burnt synagogues in alleged retaliation for the shooting of a German diplomat in Paris by a young Jew in November l938.

    There was a row of important memorial days in beginning of the November - at first 9th of November, day of Crystal Night and international day to combat racism and xenophobia,...

    Crystal Night ( 7,500 Jewish shops destroyed and 400 synagogues burnt down).

    That means you have to focus on how German Jews were deprived of their German citizenship in 1935; how German Jews were attacked in 1938 during the events known as the "Crystal Night" in English; how the day-to-day persecution of Jews by the SA, and other Nazi sympathisers who held anti-Semitic views developed in stages between 1933 and 1939.

    They also know very well that "Reverend" Jesper Langballe in the Danish parliament called Islam a "plague over Europe"..... excactly what Hitler's Der Sturmer called the Jews before the Crystal Night and its murderous raids on Jews November 9th 1938.

    Black spray paint was used to paint "Get out Jews" in three places on walls of the Tadworth Medical Centre and windows were also smashed. The note left at the surgery said "Happy Krystal Naght" and other similar phrases and was signed "Combat 18". Police said the offenders seemed to be specifically targeting one doctor who they mistakenly thought was Jewish.(...) The Crystal Night phrase, or Kristallnacht, refers to a night in November 1938 when Nazi gangs targeted Jewish homes in Germany.

    Many Germans remained cynical or unconvinced. There was little enthusiasm for the ‘Anschluss’ with Austria in 1938 or for the attack on Jews during Crystal Night in 1938 or for a European War in 1939.

    Even more ominously was the 'Service of Prayer and Intercession for the Jews in Germany', Sunday 10 November 1938, after the rape of German Jewry in the Crystal Night pogrom;

    The Jews of Germany underwent a similar ordeal in November 1938, during the terrible state-inspired pogrom known as 'Crystal Night'. Jews now grasped in desperation at any means to escape abroad.

    The Duke was forced off the throne, not because of his lady friend but because there were powerful people in England who viewed his pro-Hitler attitude with real anger and some fear. Crystal Night had not happened yet, but it became very obvious to Jewish groups both in England and your country, that their co-religionists in Germany were being mistreated and forced out of the country.

    The minority of Nazi Party activists always accepted, they shied away from actual attacks on the Jews, such as the one on Crystal Night in 1938.

    ... in the same manner Grass uses the adventure formula “Once upon a time…” in his famous rendering of the Crystal Night in The Tin

    Ernest G. Heppner was only a boy when the devastation of the November 1938 pogrom, euphemistically known as "Crystal Night," introduced a new level of Nazi horror that ended his family's happy life.

    A good example was Crystal Night Pogrom (1938) when the nazis launched a ferocious attack on jews all over Germany because a Polish Jew assassinated a German diplomat in Paris-

    This special subject includes two assignments: How did Hitler achieve supreme power in Germany? and what really happened during the Crystal Night?
    some more ;-)
    #10Authorpaleo (231992) 07 Jan 08, 10:54
    Paleo, couldn't you come up with any more examples? :-)

    I can just see a lot of Germans taking "Crystal Night" as it sounds best to them, without knowing that some people might think it sounds odd or oversimplified (see proz examples in #4), or at least without knowing that Kristallnacht is far more common. How about something like the the following to try to get across the point that Kristallnacht is used most?

    Kristallnacht - Kristallnacht (Night of Broken Glass, Crystal Night)

    or would you even consider:

    Kristallnacht - Kristallnacht, Night of Broken Glass (also: Crystal Night), as I suggested in #4, based on the examples in #8 saying Crystal Night is less common (and the newspaper examples)?
    #11AuthorCM2DD (236324) 07 Jan 08, 11:51
    CM2DD, ich hätte mit beiden Versionen kein Problem. Allerdings fürchte ich, dass solche Formate, in denen unterschiedliche Stichwörter (nicht nur Schreibvarianten) in einem Eintrag stehen, in LEO nicht vorgesehen bzw. erwünscht sind.
    #12Authorpaleo07 Jan 08, 12:38
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