archlute - a bass lute with an extended neck and unstopped bass strings.
Webster's 3rd unabridged:
archlute - a large lute: CHITARRONE, THEORBO
chitarrone - a bass or contrabass of the lute family
theorbo - an obsolete 17th century musical instrument like a large lute but having two necks with two sets of pegs, the upper carrying long bass strings used for open tones: ARCHLUTEArchlute [F. archiluth; G. Erzlaute; It. arciliuto; Sp. archilaúd].
A lute with two pegboxes, one for the fingered strings, the other for the bass courses; e.g., the theorbo or the chitarrone. See Lute.Lute.
... During the 17th dentury the increasing demand for bass instruments led to the construction of archlutes [G. Erzlaute; It. arciliuto; Sp. archilaúd], i.e., double-neck lutes with a second pegbox that carried the bass courses. There was a "short" archlute, the theorbo,
and a "long" archlute, the chitarrone.
Harvard Concise Dict. of Music, ed. Randel (1978), pp. 23, 285.
The archlute (Italian arciliuto, German Erzlaute ...) is a European plucked string instrument developed around 1600 as a compromise between the very large theorbo ... and the Renaissance tenor lute, which lacked the bass range of the theorbo. Essentially a tenor lute with the theorbo's neck-extension, the archlute lacks the power in the tenor and the bass that the theorbo's large body and typically greater string length provide.
The main differences between the archlute and the "baroque" lute of northern Europe are that the baroque lute has 11 to 13 courses, while the archlute typically has 14, and the tuning of the first six courses of the baroque lute outlines a d-minor chord, while the archlute preserves the tuning of the Renaissance lute, with perfect fourths surrounding a third in the middle for the first six. The archlute was often used as a solo instrument for the first three-quarters of the 17th century, but is rarely mentioned as a continuo instrument in this period, the theorbo being the lute class instrument with this role.
As continuo bass lines were composed both faster in motion and higher in tessitura towards the end of the 17th century, the archlute began to eclipse the theorbo as the main plucked string continuo instrument. ...
The archlute was used in Handel's operas and like repertoire; Giulio Cesare (1724) has continuo parts labelled both arciliuto and tiorba.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archlute
archlute - Erzlaute f (-| -n), Bogenlaute f (-| -n) http://www.dict.caseymongoven.com/eg/a.htm
Defining the differences between the chitarrone, theorbo and archlute has always been difficult. ...
by 1600 the words chitarrone
were considered synonymous ... the present state of research does not enable us to state with certainty any difference between chitarrone
after c. 1600. ...
From the 1680s the arciliuto
gradually replaced the tiorba,
probably because the upper two courses, being at lute pitch, gave the arciliuto
greater range for the bass, and allowed room for harmony above that bass. ... The archlute
largely replaced the theorbo in England at the beginning of the 18th century. http://www.vanedwards.co.uk/spencer/html/spen...
(& successive pages)
Another kind of lute, rare in our times, is the archlute (It.: arciliuto, Ger.: Erzlaute). ... The structure is similar to that of the theorbo with the additional bass strings but with a smaller body.
Therefore the stopped strings were shorter and could retain at lute pitch (usually tenor G tuning), so that the instrument could be used both for solo music and continuo accompaniment and became a preferred alternative to the larger theorbo (but did not gain the theorbo's sonorous bass sound).
Rech, Adelheid, 'Musical Instruments in Vermeer's Paintings: The lute'http://www.essentialvermeer.com/music/lute.html
(see also section 'The Lute on the Web' near bottom for additional links)
>> Chitarrone Francese
>> Chitarrone Francese
>> Chitarrone/Theorbe http://www.zupfinstrumente-emmerich.de/German...
Archlute - siehe Arciliuto
Arciliuto - Laute mit abgeknickten Wirbelkasten, sowie zusätzlichem Wirbelkasten am verlängerten Hals. Diese Laute wird auch als Archlute, Theorbenlaute, Liuto Attiorbata, Erzlaute, Arcileuto bezeichnet.
Chitarrone - auch Romanische Theorbe, Theorbe mit kleinem Corpus; Gesamtlänge von 6 Fuß und 8 Zoll (190,24 cm) bis ca. 7 Fuß, sechs Einzelchöre auf dem Griffbrett, acht Bordunchör
Erzlaute - siehe Arciliuto
Paduanische Theorbe - Großes, breites Korpus; Gesamtlänge von ca. 5 Fuß (142,68 cm); acht Einzelchöre auf dem Griffbrett, 8 Bordunchöre
siehe auch Romanische Theorbe (Chitarrone)
Romanische Theorbe - siehe Chitarrone
Theorbe - Theorben sind größer als Lauten mensuriert und erlaubt [sic] nicht die Ausführung von "Colleraturen oder diminutiones" (Praetorius)
siehe auch: Romanische Theorbe, (Chitarrone), Paduanische Theorbe und Arciliuto
auch bezeichnet als: Tiorba, Théorbe, Theorbo
Theorbenlaute - siehe Arciliutohttp://www.lautenmusik.net/typologie.html